Spinal Research Archives for Professionals

Chronic Pain Update: Ziconotide - A New Class of Pharmacologic Agent

Ziconotide is the first FDA-approved agent in a promising class of drugs called the conotoxins. Its release carried the specific indication for intrathecal use in chronic pain patients.

Indications, Risks, and Contraindications: Epidural Corticosteroid Injections

A review of the indications, risks, and contraindications for epidural steroid injections including study results.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Screw Plate Fixation

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash. View the posterior screw-plate fixation of a breast cancer metastasis that had caused severe pain in a 57-year old woman.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Pedicles of L2, L3, L4

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the coronal section thorugh the pedicles of L2,L3,L4.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the axial section thorugh a vertebra at the mid-pedicle level.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Posterior Screw Plate Fixation

Post-operative cervical articular anatomy in an elderly man who underwent spinal fixation, dynamic decompression plate and 3.5mm cancellous screws.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Anterior Thoracoscopic Correction

Anterior thoracoscopic correction of idiopathic scoliosis. A complete description for patients and parents dealing with this disease.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Rod Measurement and Placement

Detailed explanation and figures illustrate rod measurement and their placement during anterior thoracoscopic correction of idiopathic scoliosis.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Discectomy

An excellent description of the exposure and discectomy performed as a part of the anterior thoracoscopic correction of idiopathic scoliosis.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Disc Protrusions

Doctor Wolfgang Rauschning’s grading system for disc protrusions based on the assessment of normal specimens and actual disc herniations.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Multiple Disc Ruptures at C5-C6

Multiple disc ruptures at C5-C6 that extend into the nucleus pulposus with the annulus fibrosus avulsed from the apophyseal rim.

Novel Radiation-Free Assessment of Scoliosis and the Cobb Angle

Cobb angle measurement is essential in scoliosis diagnosis and monitoring, and other spinal deformities. The Ortelius800® is a 3D, radiation-free imaging system that non-invasively measures the spatial positions of the spinous processes.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Endplate Avulsion

Cervical Spine Injuries,Fractures and Whiplash. View the cartilaginous endplate avulsion of the C6-C7 disc from the body of C7.

Decisions and Expectations with Osteotomy Surgery for Fixed Sagittal Imbalance Syndromes: Smith-Petersen vs Pedicle Subtraction

Decisions and Expectations with Osteotomy Surgery for Fixed Sagittal Imbalance Syndromes

Cervical Anatomy and Pathology - Midlumbar Spine

Midsagittal section through the midlumbar spine of a 64–year–old female cadaver. The spine portion had been frozen in situ during routine autopsy in the supine position. The veins posterior to the spine are engorged with cruor mortis.

The Anatomic Background of Low-Back Pain

Learn about the anatomic background of low back pain including the progression of the pain tracts, pain-fighter path, and the specificity of low back pain.

Cervical Spine Approaches by Metrix

Cervical spinal approaches by Metrix. The technical possibilities in reaching the cervical spine by videoendoscopy through the anterior and posterior approach are shown.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - T1-Weighted MR Image

Cervical Spine Injuries,Fractures and Whiplash. View the gadolinium enhanced, T1-weighted MR image.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - 77 Year Old

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the sagittal section thorugh a moderately degenerated lower lumbar spine of a 77-year old man.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - S3, S4

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the axial section through the right sacroiliac (SI) joint and the lesser pelvis at the level of S3-S4.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Odontoid Process Fracture

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash. View the odontoid process fracture.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Thoracolumbar Spine, Young Female

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the sagittal section in the midline through the thoracolumbar spine of a young female adult.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Mid Pedicle Level L5

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the lower lumbar spine at the mid-pedicle level of L5.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - 70 Year Old

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the degenerated lumbar spine of a 70-year old man with a history of long-standing low back pain.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Uncovertebral Injuries

Cervical Spine Injuries,Fractures and Whiplash. View the multiple-level uncovertebral injuries between C2 and C5.

Cervical Anatomy and Pathology - Spinal Canal

Closeup of the spinal canal in the cervical spine.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Avulsions at C5

Cervical Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the coronal section through a serverely degenerated lower cervical spine of a 70-year old female.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Anterior Plate Fixation

Cervical Spine Injuries,Fractures and Whiplash. View the posttraumatic insatbility and myelopathy in a 82-year old man.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - C6, C7 Sagittal Closeup

Cervical Spine Injuries,Fractures and Whiplash. View a sagittal closeup section at C6-C7 showing a screw that transgresses and partially fractures the inferior articular proscess of C6

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Right S1 Joint

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View a axial closeup of the right SI joint.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Isthmic Spondylosis of L5

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the Iithmic spondyloysis of L5 in a 29-year old woman.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - L4 L5 Disc Degeneration

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the lower lumbar spine with pronounced disc degenerations L4-L5 and L5-S1.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Spinal Stenosis

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the severe degenerative spinal stenosis at the L4-L5 level in a 70-year old.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Burst Fracture

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View a 32-year old carpenter who had sustained a typical burstfracture of L1.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Facet Joint

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the sagittal high power photograph of the L4-L5 facet joint and foramen in the spine.
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